Find your PhD- Best websites and quotes

PhD is the garden of the questions. If you keep your mind and heart open, you will able to find all the answers to all the mysteries. Although a PhD student search for the universe, just to find his own. His soul always search for wisdom rather than the publications. Please bring in the magic back in PhD. Here is my contribution to help my fellow colleagues to search there PhD and lab partners.

https://www.findaphd.com/

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https://euraxess.ec.europa.eu/

 

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https://www.nature.com/naturejobs/science/jobs

 

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https://jobs.sciencecareers.org/

 

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https://www.wemakescholars.com/

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https://www.eurosciencejobs.com/

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https://www.daad.de/deutschland/promotion/en/

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https://www.seek.co.nz/PHD-jobs

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https://scholarshipdb.net/

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https://www.phdportal.com/

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https://www.universityvacancies.com/

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https://www.glassdoor.com/

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https://academicpositions.com/

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Interesting facts about Genes

The earth is a mix of many genes of humans, animals, viruses, bacteria, shark and so on. Just think of every living life and think why is it like this?  It`s all about genes.

Did you wonder if the number of genes can make a difference in your life? And the crazier fact is that these genes are not constant. They are always evolving and changing becoming better or furious. It depends of what we are talking about. Over here, I am only going to talk about numbers, Just numbers. And its going to blow your mind.

Q1. How many genes are there in Humans?

A1. Its about 100,000.

Q2. Do we know the function of all the genes in humans?

A2. No. We only know the function of about 19,000-20,000 genes which are known as protein coding genes.

Q3. What about other 80,000 genes?

A3. Earlier they consider them to be non-functional genes (non coding) but the theories are changing stating that they have an effect on function of 20,000 protein coding genes.

Q4. What is the most popular gene in Humans?

A4.  The gene is known as TP53. It`s role is to protect you from the cancer.

If there is a technology or a strategy that can make this gene so strong that it never under goes mutations. There will be no case of cancer in the world.

Well this is something about genes in humans. What about the genes in other living life?

Q5. When was the first tiger genome published?

A5. 2013

Q6. How many genes are there in a tiger?

A6. Researchers reported 20,226  protein coding genes and 2,935 non coding genes. Well the numbers can change with advancement in technology.

Q7. When was the first cat genome published? Do you know the name of the Cat?

A7. 2007. The name of the cat is cinnamon.

Q8. How many genes are there in a cat?

A8. Roughly 20,000 genes.

Q9. What percentage of DNA tiger shares with a domestic cat?

A9. 96%

Sometimes I wonder if we put the rest 4% genes from the tiger in a cat that cats does not have, will they become more ferocious like wild tigers.  What if you subtract these 4% genes from the tigers that cats does not have? Will you be able to play with these tigers like you can play with cats?   I am really interested to know more about these 4% genes. 😉 

Q10. How many genes are there in  most common bacteria- E.coli?

A10. It can vary from 4000 to 6000 genes

Do you know that this E.Coli normally live in the intestines of the humans and animals but some types of E.coli can cause intestinal infection include diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever. In some extreme cases, it can also lead to bloody diarrhea, dehydration or even kidney failure.

In this case you usually doctors advise you for a course of antibiotics and other medications. Not only this, there are reports that this along with other set of bacteria have become resistance to these antibiotics.

Q11. How many genes are resistant to antibiotics?

A11. It is a very hard question to answer but out of 4000-6000 genes that are present in E.Coli, there can be 5-10 genes (it can be more) that are resistant to bacteria which can vary in different strains of bacteria.

There is a small or big chance that these genes are present in the E.coli that are growing strong in your intestine.

Let me tell you something about Apple Fruit.

Q12. When was the first Apple genome published?

A12. 2010. It was a collaborative project between countries – New Zealand, USA, Italy, Belgium and France.

Q13. What is the total number of genes in a apple?

A13. A big count of 57000. Wow

Q14. Does the genome of apple reveal something new?

A14. Yes, That it is a fruit crop of temperate region  and the Asian apple is the ancestor not the European apple which was proposed earlier as an ancestor.

Q.15 What about the number of genes in Dinosaur? 😉

A15. Yet to find 😉

 

 

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Geneverine- Wolverine

Chicos y Chicas,

I am going to bring your attention towards a very interesting subject about “Humans love perfection”. There is no hidden lie that we humans love perfection and have been using external substances to make us more beautiful and powerful. Isn`t?

There is no lie that we have been using the products made by artificially and genetically modified organisms to grow stronger and stay younger for long age. Do you think that we would have the potential to modify our genes to become more stronger permanently for longer time.  And now you must be wondering if I am trying to promote any technology here but no, its just the basic hypothesis after learning a bit in different laboratories about bioinformatics and sequencing technologies.

My fascination towards sequencing and genome analysis has been growing and I wonder if the humans will be able to use these technologies to modify themselves. Ofcourse it`s not possible right now but it can become feasible in coming 50-100 years.

Let me tell you couple of facts to build my story.

It is possible to get the complete sequence information of your genome under 1500$ and it is expected to go down with time and advancement in sequencing technologies. The second one is gene editing technique that can edit the DNA and replace the modified gene in your genome (we expect that it will be done safely in case of humans) 😉

I want to write this article for the general public, so I am going to explain couple of terminologies in a simplest way-

DNA – is everything about you which has only 4 letters (A,G,T,C) and our Human DNA is made up of 3 billion characters i.e., 3 billion letters together of all A,G,T,C.

Genome – is the term for the complete DNA i.e., all the 3 billion letters together is referred as genome. So you can get the information of these 3 billion letters under 1500$. Incredible. Isn`t?

Gene editing- It can be used to make couple of desired changes in these 3 billion letters and ofcourse, it`s not easy and its still not there but it will be there as we have come a long way to play around (literally play) with plants, bacteria and even with some animals.

Although, i am not aware about the complete information of superheroes but I have always been fascinated by wolverine. I wonder if you can really create a wolverine from the scratch and if not from the scratch, can you modify your genes to obtain 1% of what wolverine have? Just imagine that if you have 1% of wolverine, whats its gonna be like.

What kind of super powers you would like to have?

And I am curious to know if I could have more time to live or I should say, more time to live as 25-30 as this time period is the most energetic one where you are open to the real world. In simple terms – you will feel like 25 even if you are 40.

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Ofcourse, many people can do it without artificial introduction of external substances  and live like 25 even they are 40. But there are more than 7 billion people living in this earth and genetic biosphere is quite different in all the locations.

And then, there are big companies claiming that green tea and red wine have anti-ageing effects but I am not sure if its really working or not. Although, there are some evidences by the researchers saying that 25% of  human life is determined by variations in our DNA i.e., that variations in our 3 billion letters. On the other, people have already found out the information of DNA of the people who have already lived more than 100 years.

So, I asked myself a question, will it possible that in 2065, Humans will have full right to modify there own DNA. Will there be any ethical questions on it? I can understand the ethical points when we are experimenting with animals. There are ethical rights but whats gonna happen when humans will have the opportunity to modify themselves.

Lets just say that in 2065, the age 25= age 40. 

 

Want to get blue eyes?

I am sure, a lot of boys and girls want blue eyes. Isn`t?

Can genetic engineering and DNA sequencing technology make it happen? I believe that it`s gonna come in near future.

I was doing some research on the gene of BLUE eyes and I found out that the gene name called HERC2 is responsible to have blue color eyes in Human beings.  It has been found out that people with blue eyes usually have a mutation in HERC2 that leads to change in the function of another gene called OCA2 which ultimately leads to change in the color of eyes.

But guys, HERC2 is a big gene of 15000-17000 bp. Now I am sure most of you will ask what is 15000 bp. Bp is base pair and our human DNA is made up of 3 billion base pairs. Now you will ask what is a base pair? There are 4 base pair i.e., A,G,C and T and our human DNA of 3 billion base pair is made up of only 4 letters [A,G,T,C] in different combinations. Each living being on this earth- humans, dogs, plants. insects, cats everyone has these base pairs but all of them have different number of base pairs.

So, out of these 3 billion letters, 15000 base pairs makes a gene called HERC2 which is responsible for many small functions in human body. But the interesting one is the change in color of eyes. And geographically, this gene and humans with blue eyes are most prominent in North and East Europe and some parts of North Africa and Americas.

I am not saying that this is going to easy but the cosmetic industry already have there eyes on this gene and they are going to come up with new strategy to get you the blue eyes using DNA sequencing and DNA editing technology.

Just remember a part of HERC2 is the gene of BLUE EYES. It`s coming……